Remember obviuosly pasta. Durum wheat or egg made, must have a fresh sauce and usually if it is home made it is much better. Consult the guides or ask to people to know typical restaurant and try a real dish of pasta with tomato sauce, ragù or any typical sauce! Let the waiter suggest you if you don't know what to choose. There are so much uses of pasta that you will not be able to taste them all, so, try the most common ones! Tomato, carbonara, amatriciana, carbonara, pesto... you will not be disappointed.
What about meat? Near Florence (Firenze in italian) you will find great (not only for flavour but also for dimensions) steaks called: "Fiorentina" (can weigh a couple of pounds) if you want to try this real italian food, order it rear and it will be the best thing you will eat during your trip! We also have a super selection of cold cuts like: the raw ham of S. Daniele, the salami and the sausages of Veneto, the coppa and culatello from Emilia Romagna, the speck from Trentino-Alto Adige.
With the meat comes the cheese!!! Mozzarella, mozzarella di bufala, caciocavallo, asiago, ricotta, scamorza, provola. All these strange names are typical italian products. Mozzarella is a typical southern product but can be found fresh in some places also in the north. The real fresh mozzarella "speaks" when you taste it, believe me. All the fresh italian cheese are a poem, a unique taste of Italy!
Every region has its particular dessert: do you know that one called "Tiramisu"? It was born near Venice in a town called Treviso, that mix of mascarpone cheese, cocoa, savoiardi biscuits, eggs, sugar, coffee and liqueur. The cannolo is a typical sicilian dessert: made of pasta frolla and sweetened ricotta cheese. A pleasure for every mouth that will taste it. The Lombardy has two particular desserts: panettone and pandoro... Created with the surplus of some ingredients like: flour, milk, eggs, sugar, butter... simple ingredients that almost everyone was able to find at the time.
And last but not least: PIZZA!!!! A national italian treasure, with a minimum of attention (avoid the most turistic places) you will eat a piece of Belpaese and you will have a great meal for an a few euros!